15% OFF All Products W/Code: MERRYXMAS | Order by 12/18 guaranteed Xmas delivery!

Toxic Shock Syndrome: The Basics

Jun 112014

Toxic Shock SyndromeIf you’re a tampon user you’ve probably seen the warnings that come on every box: Toxic Shock Syndrome Risk. TSS is a rare disease caused when certain bacteria get into the blood stream and release toxins that damage the body’s functions. Tampon companies were required to add these warnings after a brand of super-absorbent tampons were linked to a 1980 outbreak of TSS that affected 814 menstruating women, 38 of them fatally. Once that brand was taken off the market, instances of TSS immediately dropped – but even today about 50% of TSS cases are still linked to menstruation and tampon use.

While concern about TSS has dropped considerably, a resurgence of cases in the early 2000s alarmed some researchers, who confirmed an increase in the incidence of toxic shock syndrome across the US. TSS is a rare disease; some scientists estimate that only 3-4 people per 100,000 are diagnosed each year. However, it’s still a condition menstruating women need to know about. Understanding how to prevent TSS and how to recognize the symptoms is absolutely necessary to protect your health and avoid the most serious complications.

Toxic Shock Syndrome

TSS is caused by Staphylococcus aureus (Staph) and Streptococcus pyogenes (Strep) bacteria. Both types of micro-organisms are found naturally on healthy skin and noses in 20-30% of people, and staph can also be found in the vagina itself –with no ill effects. The problems start when these bacteria find their way into the bloodstream, rapidly reproduce, and release toxins into the body. Most people develop antibodies that protect them against these toxins as they get older, which is why more than 1/3 of all cases of TSS are in women under 19. For unknown reasons, a small percentage of people never develop these anti-bodies.

The toxins interfere with the body’s ability to regulate blood pressure, causing it to drop to dangerous lows. Kidneys tend to be particularly affected, since they filter out waste and toxins from your blood – untreated TSS can result in kidney failure. The bacteria itself also attacks tissues in the skin, muscles, and organs, so in extreme cases of TSS multi-organ failure can occur. Overall TSS has a 5% fatality rate.

Tampons and TSS

Scientists aren’t sure exactly why tampon use increases your risk for the disease, but there are two theories to explain the connection. First, it’s believed that tampons, especially super-absorbent ones which are often left in for longer periods of time, are an ideal breeding ground for the bacteria. Another theory holds that the fibers of the tampon dry out and scratch the tissue of your vagina, allowing the bacteria into your bloodstream. It’s important to remember that tampons themselves do not cause TSS, but they do increase your risk.

In addition to tampon use, TSS has been linked to wounds or burns on the skin, recent surgery or childbirth, use of wound packing materials (like those used for nosebleeds), and contraceptive sponges or diaphragms left in the vagina too long.


Symptoms of TSS can appear quickly and often mimic the flu, making it difficult to recognize for sufferers and to diagnose for doctors. Common symptoms include:

  • Sudden high fever
  • A drop in blood pressure
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Diarrhea
  • Skin rash that looks like a sunburn
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Muscle/joint aches
  • Shedding of skin of the palms and the soles of the feet (after 1-2 weeks of illness)

If you’re on your period and have a sudden high fever and any of these symptoms, especially if you’re using tampons, you should seek medical attention at once. If you’re using a tampon, wound packing material, contraceptive sponge or diaphragm, remove it immediately – don’t wait until you see your doctor. The treatment for TSS generally includes a stay in the hospital, antibiotics to clear the infection, fluids to increase blood pressure and treat dehydration, and treatment of any complications (like organ damage).

Protect Yourself

Menstrual cups are made of 100% body-safe, medical-grade silicone – which is the exact same silicone used in surgical procedures and discourages the growth of bacteria. They also collect rather than absorb your menstrual fluid, meaning they don’t cause irritation or dryness. The cups can also be left in for up to 12 hours of safe, comfortable period protection (much longer than tampons). To learn more about menstrual cups click here.

Lily Cup Compact - The World's First Collapsible Menstrual Cup

Otherwise you should use the lowest absorbency tampon you can, be sure to change your tampons often (most brands recommend every 4 to 8 hours), and alternate using tampons and pads throughout your period. If you wear a tampon at night, be sure to insert a fresh one before bed and change it as soon as you wake up. And most importantly, always wash your hands before you insert anything into your vagina.

Around 30% of women who contract toxic shock syndrome will get it again, so if you have ever been diagnosed with toxic shock syndrome you should not use any device that has to be inserted into your vagina – especially tampons. For most women, the probability of getting TSS is quite low, but being aware of your risks and taking steps to minimize those risks is just a smart move for all menstruating women.
Please note that advice offered by Intimina may not be relevant to your individual case. For specific concerns regarding your health, always consult your physician or other licensed medical practitioners.

6 Reasons to Switch to a Menstrual Cup

The Familiar Story You’re in the middle of a busy day when suddenly your period arrives. Now you’re on ‘period duty’, reorganizing plans, your wardrobe and meetings at a moment’s notice because your period demanded it. Tools for dealing with menstruation have progressed over the years with the goal of downsizing the hassle. Unfortunately, tampons [...]

Read more »

can virgins use menstrual cups

Can Virgins Use Menstrual Cups?

The short answer? Yes! If you’re old enough to menstruate then you can use a menstrual cup, regardless of sexual activity. ‘Popping your cherry’ might be the cutest way to describe losing your virginity, but it also lends to the problematic idea that there is something to be ‘popped’. Outside of the many misconceptions it [...]

Read more »

period and hangover remedies

Periods & Hangovers: 5 Step Survival Guide

Periods and hangovers. Just one of these can be enough to entirely ruin your day, but both at the same time?! It’s enough to make a grown woman cry. Last night’s happy hour might have seemed like a good idea at the time, but this morning’s mixture of nausea and cramps probably has you feeling [...]

Read more »

Menstrual Cup vs Tampon – What’s right for you?

Perhaps you’re a young woman who has just started her period (welcome to womanhood!). Maybe you’re a period pro who has her routine down to a science. You may be thinking about trying out tampons, or considering not using them anymore. Regardless of who you are, you’ve probably been hearing a lot about menstrual cups [...]

Read more »

  • Sign Up. It's Rewarding!
  • Join our newsletter list today.
  • Enjoy 10% off your first order.
  • *Email address
  • *Birthday
  • *Required field
     For first-time subscribers only. Terms & Conditions
INTIMINA uses cookies to improve our service to the customer. By continuing to browse our site, you agree to our use of cookies detailed here.   ACCEPT