The Epstein Barr Virus and Long-Term Complications

Women's Health | | Natasha Weiss
4 min read

Since the pandemic, our views on viruses have radically changed. The general public has more of an idea of how they work, and how we can work together to protect the health of our communities. Viruses, however, are complicated and are constantly changing. One virus that has been a topic of conversation amongst health communities is what’s known as the Epstein-Barr Virus. What is this virus, why are so many health educators talking about it, and how might it impact your health? Let’s find out!

What is The Epstein Barr Virus?

Epstein-Barr Virus is a member of the herpes family and is also known as herpesvirus 4. One of the most common viruses that infect humans, EBV is found all over the world. Most people are infected at some point in their lives, however, teenagers and adults are more likely to exhibit symptoms than children. EBV is spread through bodily fluids, primarily through saliva, but also blood and semen as well. This means you can contract EBV by sharing utensils, toothbrushes, kissing, and occasionally through sexual activity. Initial infection with EBV can cause mononucleosis, also known as mono or “the kissing bug”. There is currently no vaccine to prevent the spread of EBV. Thanks to recent research into its potential long-term side effects, more efforts may be put into developing a vaccine as a way to prevent related diseases.

Symptoms of The Epstein Barr Virus

 A lot of people who contract the Epstein-Barr Virus don’t show any symptoms, especially children. That being said, these are some common symptoms of an infection:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Swollen liver
  • Rash
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Inflamed throat

These symptoms typically clear up in two to four weeks. Some people may experience fatigue for weeks or months after, and some people experience more long-term complications.

Long-Term Effects of Epstein Barr Virus

 After your initial infection clears up, the virus becomes dormant in the body. In some cases, it starts to cause symptoms later on, especially for people with weakened immune systems. Recent studies show that inflammation from infection with COVID-19 may reactivate the EBV virus and may lead to symptoms of long COVID. Another possible complication is chronic EBV. Although rare, chronic EBV occurs when a person’s immune system isn’t able to control the infection, keeping the infection active. Symptoms of this include:

  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Joint stiffness
  • Sore throat
  • Liver failure
  • Anemia


It’s not just the EBV infection that can cause long-term health issues. EBV may increase someone’s risk of developing other health conditions. Possible long-term complications of chronic EBV include lymphomas, leukemia, a weakened immune system, and organ failure.

Epstein-Barr virus and Autoimmune Disorders

 An EBV infection may increase your risk of developing seven autoimmune diseases. It is believed that this is because the infection may activate genes that affect the function of your immune system. If someone has a genetic predisposition to a certain illness or disease, they may be more likely to develop it based on different environmental factors. One of those environmental factors is viruses, infections, and inflammation which can be caused by infections. EBV for some people may be one of the environmental triggers that set the right environment for someone to develop an autoimmune disorder. For people with a genetic predisposition, EBV may switch on the genes associated with certain autoimmune disorders.

The diseases that have been linked with Epstein-Barr virus are:

Treatment of EBV

Most cases of EBV will clear up on their own. However, this isn’t the case for people with chronic EBV or who develop related disorders. There is a blood test that can confirm a prior EBV infection. About nine out of ten adults have antibodies for EBV, so although it could be the source of more chronic symptoms, it’s hard to isolate it as a cause since it’s so prevalent.

For people with chronic EBV in particular, there is one proven effective treatment known as “hematopoietic stem cell transplantation”, aka a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. Treatment of other related health issues varies greatly on the disease, as well as the individual. Although research into EBV and chronic health conditions is relatively new and still has a long way to go, it’s started to give scientists more tools with which to approach autoimmune disorders. One example is new research into antiviral treatments for people with multiple sclerosis.

The role of EBV in other long-term conditions is not totally understood, especially considering how common it is. That being said, it’s helpful to have on your radar, especially if you are navigating chronic health disorders that may be related to EBV.

3 thoughts on “The Epstein Barr Virus and Long-Term Complications

  • Jennifer Moir says:

    Thanks very much for this information. My husband thought he had EPV at university in the 1960s and it was was diagnosed in the USA while he was working for Ford Motor Company and experienced flare-ups of fatigue, sore mouth and generally feeling rough. Now he’s in his 70s, back in the UK, and this winter has had several flare-ups with a few weeks or now only days between them. Should he tell his GP?

  • Absolutely! Full disclosure to health professionals is very important.

  • Carol Sturm says:

    Is there any research into the covid vaccines and EBV infections. I had two Moderna vaccines and then a booster. After the last booster I developed an EBV infection along with a lot of other symptoms, major hair loss, tinnitus, repeats UTIs. The vaccines clearly did a number on my immune system.

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